Topic 12, Organic Chemistry
Topic 12, Organic Chemistry
(Key concepts)

*Tables P, Q, and R
*Organic compounds contain carbon, C
*Each carbon forms 4 covalent bonds
*Carbon atoms bond to other carbon atoms
*Number of organic compounds far exceeds the number of inorganic
*Most molecular solids (few network)
*Most non-polar
*Most weak forces of attraction
*Most low mp & bp
*Most do not dissolve in water (which is polar)
*Most non-electrolytes
*Organic reactions slow (high activation energy; bonds must be broken)
*Molecular formulas: C4H10
*Structural formulas:
Image result for organic structural formulas
*Condensed structural formulas:

*Hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and carbon; alkanes, alkenes, alkynes
*Alkanes all single bonds; saturated; CnH2n+2
*Alkenes one double bond; unsaturated; CnH2n
*Alkynes one triple bond; unsaturated; CnH2n-2
*Other Organic Compounds, Table R

Same molecular formula, different structural formula; therefore, different physical and chemical properties
The following are isomers of pentane, C5H12:

*Organic Reactions
1.  Combustion:  See first 5 reactions listed on Table I.  Complete combustion produces carbon dioxide and water.  Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide and water. 
2.  Substitution:  When hydrogen atoms on alkanes (saturated) are replaced by other atoms such as halogens.
3.  Addition:  When double or triple bonds of alkenes or alkynes (unsaturated) open up and atoms add onto the molecule.
4.  Esterification:  Organic acid + alcohol -->  ester + water
5.  Saponification:  Ester + inorganic base --> soap + alcohol
6.  Fermentation:  Sugar -(zymase)-> alcohol + carbon dioxide
7.  Polymerization:  Reactions in which monomers (single units) link to form polymers ( many units)